Books, articles, websites, etc., which provide perspective on multiple Participatory Processes and/or how they may work together.
Information from these can be extracted and commented on in other parts of this Multi Approach Programs section.
Multiple-Approach Studies and Compilations
Citizen Science Toolbox - http://www.coastal.crc.org.au/toolbox/alpha-list.asp
Includes 63 detailed process descriptions, with references. Also offers guiding principles and a few case studies.
"Designing Multi-Process Public Participation Programs" - http://co-intelligence.org/DD-MultiProcessPgms.html
A number of approaches to integrating multiple processes together into coherent community programs. Processes mentioned in this article are described in more detail on "Co-Intelligent Practices, Approaches, Processes and Organizations" which contains over 30 processes.
"Democracy and the Precautionary Principle: An Introduction" by Maria B. Pellerano and Peter Montague - http://www.rachel.org/library/getfile.cfm?ID=161
Describes ways communities can address all their common issues, including technological ones. Covers 13 specific methodologies. (download)
Scientific, Deliberative Polling/Deliberative Democracy - http://www.auburn.edu/academic/liberal_arts/poli_sci/tann/tann2/project2.html
Includes descriptions of and links to ten methodologies/groups.
Participatory Environmental Policy Processes: Experiences from North and South by Tim Holmes and Ian Scoones - http://nt1.ids.ac.uk/cgi-bin/dbtcgi.exe?RNO=DOC7863&$TEXTBASE_PATH=d:InetPubwwwrootdata&$TEXTBASE_NAME=high&$MAXRECS=10&$NOREPORT=0&$NODISPLAY=0&$REPORT_FORM=fullgdn
Describes 19 Deliberative Inclusionary Processes (DIPs) around the world and how power relations and institutional contexts critically affect their outcomes. Includes 35 case studies.
"Ideas for Community Consultation" by Dr. Lyn Carson and Dr. Katharine Gelber - http://www.planning.nsw.gov.au/planfirst/pdf/principles_procedures_final.pdf
Discussion of principles for making consultation work, plus seven specific methods. (PDF)
"Empowering Regions: Strategies and Tools for Community Decision Making" by the Alliance for Regional Stewardship - http://www.regionalstewardship.org/Documents/Monograph2.pdf
Excellent discussion of categories of tools (rather than specific tools), including case studies. Includes Information Tools, Visualization Tools, Impact Analysis Tools, GIS and Modeling Techniques and Community Process Tools. (PDF)
"A Call to Move Beyond Public Opinion to Public Judgment" by Tom Atlee - http://www.co-intelligence.org/CIPol_publicjudgment.html
Includes dozens of processes in categories, with links.
The Innovations in Democracy Project - http://www.democracyinnovations.org
Alphabetical annotated list of over 100 democratic innovations, books, organizations, and group and community processes, each with a link.
BOOKS describing many processes
Tom Atlee: THE TAO OF DEMOCRACY: USING CO-INTELLIGENCE TO CREATE A WORLD THAT WORKS FOR ALL. Describes and links hundreds of approaches to co-intelligence. http://www.taoofdemocracy.com
Peggy Holman and Tom Devane (eds): THE CHANGE HANDBOOK: GROUP METHODS FOR SHAPING THE FUTURE. Describes and compares 18 methods used in corporate work, many of which are applicable to community work. http://www.bkpub.com/products/productshow.adp?code=17
Ortwin Renn et al. (eds): FAIRNESS AND COMPETENCE IN CITIZEN PARTICIPATION: EVALUATING MODELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DISCOURSE. Includes detailed descriptions and critiques of 8 leading environmental participation methods. http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/0-7923-3517-1
Archon Fung and Erik Olin Wright: DEEPENING DEMOCRACY: INSTITUTIONAL INNOVATIONS IN EMPOWERED PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE. Describes in great detail several inspiring major participation initiatives around the world. Includes critiques. http://www.wwnorton.com/orders/vb/859466.htm
Lyn Carson and Brian Martin: RANDOM SELECTION IN POLITICS has an appendix briefly describing 43 approaches. The main text has more detailed descriptions of a number of models that use random selection, such as Citizen Jury. http://www.greenwood.com/books/BookDetail.asp?dept_id=1&sku=C6702&imprintID=