A sampling of definitions of deliberation and public deliberation from the "What are Dialogue & Deliberation" page on NCDD's website (

Deliberation is "the kind of reasoning and talking we do when a difficult decision has to be made, a great deal is at stake, and there are competing options or approaches we might take. It means to weigh possible actions carefully by examining what is most valuable to us."

Kettering Foundation,

"[Public deliberation] is a public consideration about how problems are to be defined and understood, what the range of possible solutions might be, and who should have the responsibility for solving them."

Nancy Roberts. From "Public Deliberation: An Alternative Approach to Crafting Policy and Setting Direction" in Public Administration Review, vol. 57, no. 2 (124-132). 1997.

"Deliberation*is a form of thought and reflection that can take place in any kind of conversation [including dialogue, debate and discussion]."

Daniel Yankelovich. The Magic of Dialogue: Transforming Conflict into Cooperation. 1999.

"Deliberation refers either to a particular sort of discussion-one that involves the careful and serious weighing of reasons for and against some proposition-or to an interior process by which an individual weighs reasons for and against courses of action."

J.D. Fearon. From "Deliberation as discussion." In J. Elster (Ed.), Deliberative Democracy (pp. 44-68). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1998.

"[Deliberation] is the act of considering different points of view and coming to a reasoned decision that distinguishes deliberation from a generic group activity*. Collective 'problem-solving' discussion is viewed as the critical element of deliberation, to allow individuals with different backgrounds, interests and values to listen, understand, potentially persuade and ultimately come to more reasoned, informed and public-spirited decisions."

Julia Abelson et al. From "Deliberations about deliberative methods: issues in the design and evaluation of public participation processes," Social Science & Medicine 57 (2003) 239-251.

"Public deliberation is simply people coming together to talk about a community problem that is important to them. Participants deliberate with one another - eye-to-eye, face-to-face, exploring options, weighing others' views, considering the costs and consequences of public policy decisions."

National Issues Forums,

"Public deliberation is a means by which citizens make tough choices about basic purposes and directions for their communities and their country."

David Mathews, Kettering Foundation. From Public Deliberation in America.

"[Public deliberation is] social learning about public problems and possibilities."

Robert Reich. From Public Management in a Democratic Society.





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see where we are also listing similar practices

  --Michel Bauwens (Not signed in).....Sun Jan 31 00:53:33 -0800 2010

The Bohm Dialogue, especially Collective Reflection has significance for me in terms of artistic critique and dialogue.

If one wanted to connect this to Jungian thought I'd relate to that.

  --Srule Brachman (Not signed in).....Mon May 21 17:09:16 +0000 2012





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